Roth IRA is a tax-exempt investment account that allows you to make after-tax contributions to save for retirement. The Roth IRA has a tax-free status. It is a great way to save for retirement and meet your financial goals without paying a dime for taxes on your investments. It offers you a lot of flexibility with very few constraints.
Roth IRA is an excellent starting point for young professionals. It can help you reach your financial goals faster. So open your account now to maximize its full potential. Investing early in your career will lay out the path to your financial independence.
1. Plan for your future
Opening a Roth IRA account is a great way to plan for retirement and build financial independence. This tax-free account is an excellent saving opportunity for many young professionals and anyone with limited access to workplace retirement plans. Even those with 401k plans with their employer can open a Roth IRA.
If you are single and earn $129,000 or less in 2022, you can contribute up to $6,000 per year to your Roth IRA. Individuals 50 years old and above can add a catch-up contribution of $1,000. If you are married and filing jointly, you can contribute the full amount if your MAGI is under $204,000.
There is a phaseout amount between $129,000 and $144,000 for single filers and $204,000 and $214,000 for married filing jointly.
2. No age limit
There is no age limit for your contributions. You can contribute to your Roth IRA at any age as long as you earn income.
Minors who earn income can also invest in Roth IRA. While youngsters have fewer opportunities to make money, many sources of income will count – babysitting, garden cleaning, child acting, modeling, selling lemonade, distributing papers, etc.
3. No investment restrictions
Unlike most 401k plans, Roth IRAs do not have any restrictions on the type of investments in the account. You can invest in any asset class that suits your risk tolerance and financial goals.
4. No taxes
There are no taxes on the distributions from this account once you reach the age of 59 ½. Your investments will grow tax-free. You will never pay taxes on your capital gains and dividends, either. Roth IRA is a great saving tool for investors at all income levels and tax brackets.
With an average historical growth rate of 7%, your investment of $6,000 today could bring you $45,674 in 30 years, completely tax-free. The cumulative effect of your return and the account’s tax status will help your investments grow faster.
If you are a California resident, your maximum tax rate on ordinary income can be over 52.5% – 37% for Federal taxes, 13.3% for State Taxes, and 2.35% for Medicare. This figure excludes Social security and self-employment tax.
The maximum long-term capital gain tax in the US is 23.68%. California residents could pay up to 13,3% on their capital gains as California doesn’t differentiate between long-term and short-term gains.
5. No penalties if you withdraw your original investment
While not always recommended, Roth IRA allows you to withdraw your original dollar contribution (but not the return) before reaching retirement, penalty and tax-free. Say, you invested $5,000 several years ago. And now the account has grown to $15,000. You can withdraw your initial contribution of $5,000 without penalties.
6. Diversify your future tax exposure
Most of your retirement savings will likely be in a 401k plan or an investment account. 401k plans are tax-deferred, and you will owe taxes on any distributions. Investment accounts are taxable, and you pay taxes on capital gains and dividends. In reality, nobody can predict your tax rate by the time you need to take out money from your retirement and investment accounts. Roth IRA adds this highly flexible tax-advantaged component to your investments.
7. No minimum distributions
Unlike 401k plans, Roth IRA doesn’t have any minimum distributions requirements. Investors can withdraw their savings at their wish or keep them intact indefinitely.
8. Do a backdoor Roth conversion
Due to recent legal changes, investors who do not satisfy the requirements for direct Roth IRA contributions can still make investments in it. The process starts with a taxable contribution, up to the annual limit, into a Traditional IRA. Eventually, the contributions are rolled from the Traditional IRA to the Roth IRA.
9. Roth conversion from Traditional IRA and 401k plans
Under certain circumstances, converting your Traditional IRA and an old 401k plan to Roth IRA could make sense. If you expect to earn less income or pay lower taxes in a particular year, it could be beneficial to consider this Roth conversion. Your rollover amount will be taxable at your current ordinary income tax level. An alternative strategy is to consider annual rollovers in amounts that will keep you within your tax bracket.
10. Estate planning
Roth IRA is an excellent estate planning tool. Due to its age flexibility and no minimum required distributions, it is a good option for generation transfer and leaving a legacy to your beloved ones.
A happy and financially secure retirement is a primary goal for many working Americans. I created a retirement checklist that will help you navigate through the complex path of retirement planning. For my readers who are serious about their retirement planning, follow these 12 steps to organize and simplify your planning process. My 12-step retirement checklist can be a practical roadmap regardless of the age you want to retire. Following these steps will ensure that you have reviewed all aspects of your life and how they can impact your decisions before and during your retirement. Here is the crucial retirement checklist of all the things you need to do in preparation for the next chapter of your life.
1. Know what you own
You have worked very hard for this moment. You have earned and saved during your entire career. Now it’s time to benefit from your hard work. The first step of your retirement checklist is understanding what you own. Don’t guess. Don’t assume. You need to thoroughly evaluate all your assets, real estate, businesses, and retirement savings. Everything that you have accumulated during your working years can play a pivotal role in your successful retirement.
2. Gather all your financial documents
On the second step of your retirement checklist, you need to collect all relevant documents that show your asset ownership – financial statements, trust documents, wills, property deeds. This will be an excellent opportunity to gather all your plan statements from old 401k and retirement plans. If you own a real estate, make sure you have all your deeds in place. If you are beneficiary of a trust, collect all trust documents. Check all your bank, saving accounts and social security statements. Make sure that you build a complete picture of your financial life.
3. Pay of off your debt
One of your main pre-retirement goals is to become debt-free. If you are still paying off your mortgage, student loans, personal loans or credit card debt, now it’s a great time to review your finances and come up with a payment plan that will help you pay off your debts and improve your retirement prospects.
4. Build an emergency fund
The emergency fund is your rainy-day money. It’s the money that covers unexpected expenses. So, you don’t have to dip in your regular monthly budget. It’s the money that will help you if you unexpectedly lose your job or otherwise unable to earn money. I recommend keeping at least six months’ worth of living expenses in a separate savings account. Ideally, you should have built your emergency fund long before you decided to retire. If you haven’t started yet, it’s never too late to create one. You can set aside a certain percentage of your monthly income to fill the emergency fund until you reach a comfortable level.
5. Learn your employee benefits
Sometimes employers offer generous retirement benefits to attract and retain top talent. Many companies and public institutions provide 401k contribution matching, profit sharing or a pension. Some employers may even offer certain retirement health care benefits. If you are lucky to work for these companies and public organizations, learn your benefits package. Ensure that you are taking full advantage of your employee benefits. Don’t leave any free money on the table.
6. Secure health insurance
A retired couple will spend, on average, $285,000 for healthcare-related expenses during their retirement. This cost is only going higher at a faster rate than regular inflation. Even if you are in good health, healthcare will be one of your highest expenses after you retire.
Medicare part A and part B cover only part of your healthcare cost including impatient and hospital care. They do not include long-term care, dental care, eye exams, dentures, cosmetic surgery, acupuncture, hearing aids and exams, routine foot care. You will be responsible for paying for Medicare parts D out of pocket through your private Medicare Advantage insurance. Medicare Advantage is a "bundled" plan that includes Medicare Part A (Hospital Insurance) and Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance), and usually Medicare prescription drug (Part D).
7. Maximize your savings
Unless you have a generous pension, you will have to rely on your retirement savings to support yourself during retirement. Your 401k and IRA will likely be your primary retirement income source. So even if you have championed your retirement savings, now it’s a great time to calculate if your accumulated savings can support you during retirement. To boost your confidence, maximize your retirement contributions to 401k plans, IRA and even taxable investment accounts. Once you reach 50, the 401k and IRA plans will allow making additional catch up contributions.
There is another compelling reason to save in tax-deferred retirement accounts. If you are in the prime period of your earnings, you are probably in a very high tax bracket. Maximizing your tax-deferred retirement contributions will lower your tax bill for the year. You can withdraw your money
8. Prepare your estate plan
Estate planning is the process of assigning trustees and beneficiaries, writing a will, giving power of attorney, and health directives. The estate plan will guarantee that your wishes are fulfilled, and your loved ones are taken care of if you die or become incapacitated. Creating a trust will ensure that your beneficiaries will avoid lengthy, expensive and public probate. Update your beneficiaries in all your retirement accounts.
Estate planning is never a pleasant topic or an ice-breaking conversation. The sooner you get it done the sooner will go on with your life.
9. Set your budget
Budgeting is a critical step in your retirement checklist. Once you retire, you may no longer earn a wage, but you will still have monthly expenses. Retirement will give you a chance to do things for which you haven’t had time before that. Some people like to travel. Some may pick up a hobby or follow a charitable cause. Others may decide to help with grandchildren. You may choose to buy a house and live closer to your kids. Whatever lifestyle you choose, you need to ensure that your budget can support it.
10. Create social security and retirement income strategy
The most crucial step in your retirement checklist is creating your income strategy. This is the part where you might need the help of a financial planner so you can get the most out of your retirement savings and social security benefits. Your retirement income strategy should be tailored to your specific needs, lifestyle, type of savings and the variety of your assets.
11. Craft a tax strategy
Even though you are retired, you still have to pay taxes. Up to 85% of your social security benefits can be taxable. All your distributions from your 401k plan and Traditional IRA will be subject to federal and state tax. All your dividends and interest in your investment and savings accounts are taxable as well.
Only, the distributions from Roth IRA are not taxable. As long as you have your Roth IRA open for more than five years and you are 59 ½ or older, your withdrawals from the Roth IRA will be tax-free.
Ask your financial advisor to craft a tax strategy that minimizes your tax payments over the long run. Find out if Roth Conversion makes sense to you.
12. Set your retirement goals
Retirement opens another chapter in your life. The people who enjoy their retirement the most are those who have retirement goals. Find out what makes you happy and follow your passions. Your retirement will give you a chance to do everything that you have missed while you were pursuing your career.
Navigating through your retirement checklist will be a reflection of your life, career, assets, and family. No one’s retirement plan is the same. Everybody’s situation is unique and different. Follow these simple 12 steps so you can enjoy and better prepare for your retirement. Be proactive. Don’t wait until the last minute for crucial financial decisions. Make well-informed choices so you can be ahead of life events and enjoy your retirement to the fullest.
Pay off debt before retirement is a top priority for many of you who are planning to retire in the near future. In my article Retirement Checklist, I discussed a 12-step roadmap to planning a successful and carefree retirement. One of the most important steps was paying off your debt. According to the Federal Reserve, US households owe $4 trillion in non-housing loans and $10 trillion in mortgage debt. In today’s world, it is easy and effortless to get credit. Loan and credit card offers are lurking on every corner.
Why is it essential to pay off debt before retirement?
Being debt-free is a significant milestone in becoming financially independent. Retirement opens a new chapter in new life. You can no longer rely on your working wage. Your retirement income will come from a combination of steady income sources such as social security, pension, retirement savings, and possibly annuities. Your income will drop, your healthcare cost will rise, and your debt payments will remain the same. Having a large amount of debt during retirement will reduce your disposable income and strain your financial strength.
For those of you who are committed to paying debt before retirement, I have created a multi-step guide that can help you navigate through the challenges of becoming debt-free
1. Set your goals
Setting your financial and retirement goals is an essential pathway in your life journey. Pay off debt before retirement starts with establishing up your goals. Having goals give you structure and will prepare you for the future. If you do not know where you are going, you can end up anywhere. Following your objectives will provide you with essential life milestones. Achieving your goals will give you a sense of accomplishment and boost your confidence.
2. Take control of your spending habits
If you are approaching retirement with considerable debt, you need to rein in spending habits. You can not be a big spender. Therefore, as long as you spend more than you earn, you will need to cut back. I know it is a painful task. It is not easy to make changes to your lifestyle. Still, think of it as a small and responsible sacrifice today so you can live a better tomorrow.
3. Create a budget
If you find yourself spending more than you make, you will need to set up a budget. Numerous websites and mobile apps can help you track your income and expenses by groups, categories, and periods. Regular budgeting can help you steer away from outsized spending and frivolous purchases.
4. Build an emergency fund
An emergency fund is the amount of cash you need to cover 6 to 12 months of essential expenses. Financially successful people maintain an emergency fund to cover high, unexpected costs. Your rainy-day stash can serve as a buffer if you lose your job or lose your ability to earn income. By maintaining an emergency fund, you could avoid taking debt and cover temporary gaps in your budget. Suppose you don’t have an emergency fund. Start with setting up a certain percentage of your wage that will automatically go to your savings account. Don’t get discouraged if it takes a long time to build your rainy-day fund. It is okay. Look forward and keep saving.
5. Track your loans
Did you notice that the first four steps of becoming debt-free did not involve debt at all? I hope you will agree that building long-lasting financial habits is the key to financial independence.
So, if you have reviewed my first four recommendations, it is time to look at your debt.
Make a list of all your loans – credit cards, auto, mortgage, student, home equity, personal loans. Sort them by amount and interest rate. Pay attention to due dates and monthly interest charges. Do not miss payments. Late or missed payments can trigger enormous late fees and penalty charges. Stay on top of your loans. Track them daily and monthly.
6. Pay off higher interest loans first
I strongly recommend that you pay off your highest interest loans first. Credit cards tend to have the highest interest rates and the most punishing late fees. If you have credit card debt, there is a high chance that you need to tackle it first. Remember, there are always exceptions to the rules, and every one case is different.
Another popular theory suggests that you pay off your smaller loans first and repay the bigger loans next. The reasoning behind this recommendation is that paying off even smaller loans awards you with the feeling of accomplishment. You can also focus on the big picture once you eliminate the smaller loans.
Mathematically, paying off your highest interest loans makes more sense. Emotionally, paying off the smaller debt first could be more effective. In the end, you can find a happy medium. Use the approach that works best for you and your specific situation.
7. Pay off or refinance your mortgage
I recommend that you pay off your mortgage by the time you retire. Owning your house without the burden of debt is the ultimate American dream and the secret to a happy retirement. In today’s world, there is nothing more liberating than owning your home. Your home is your fortress. It’s the place where you can be yourself. You can host your family and friends and enjoy your favorite hobby.
Now, if you are still making mortgage payments, you may want to look into refinancing options. With record-low interest rates, today offers an excellent opportunity to lower your monthly mortgage bill. It’s certainly will be easier to refinance your mortgage while still working and having regular income and paystubs. I highly recommend that you shop around for the best offer. Banks and mortgage brokers will offer you a wide range of interest rates, closing costs, and refinancing rules. Generally, stay away from bids with high closing costs. Evaluate your savings for each offer and choose the option that best suits your need.
8. Downsize and relocate
Another popular way to control your cost and pay off debt before retirement is downsizing and relocating. Sometimes you can do them both at the same time. Owning a big house requires high maintenance, bills, and possibly higher property taxes. Moving to a smaller home in a more affordable location can save you a lot of money in the long run. The USA offers a wide range of affordable locations in smaller states and communities. Choose a location that fits your budget, health insurance needs, and lifestyle.
9. Work longer
if you are approaching retirement age and holding debt, you may want to consider working longer. Working after retirement is no longer a stigma. Many retirees choose to work part-time, remain active, and earn an extra income. The additional money can help your pay off your remaining loans. You can use the extra cash to maintain your emergency fund or support your current lifestyle.
10. Do not touch your retirement savings
Your retirement savings are sacred. They are your ticket to financial freedom. It can be tempting to pay your debt before retirement by tapping into your 401k or IRA. However, this strategy rarely ends very well. Do not withdraw your 401k or IRA savings unless you are in dire need. Hold on to your retirement savings until you exhaust your other options. One, when drawing from your retirement plan, you will need to pay taxes. Furthermore, you may have to pay a penalty charge if you are younger than 59 ½. Second, paying off debt without controlling your expense will only have a short-term impact. You will be back where you started in just a couple of months or years. And lastly, tapping your retirement savings now will reduce your future income. How confident are you that you can replace your lost revenue in the future?
Are you preparing for retirement during the coronavirus crisis? Many professionals who are planning to retire in 2020 and beyond are facing unique challenges and circumstances. Probably your investment portfolio took a hit in February and March. Maybe your job is at risk. Many people have been furloughed. Some have lost their job. Large employers have announced hiring freezes. Small business owners are facing an existential threat to survival. Landlords are facing uncertainties with rent collection. A range of jobs has become obsolete overnight.
Future retirees will have to make difficult choices in the coming years. With global Interest rates near zero, retirees can no longer rely on traditional safe vehicles such as treasuries, corporate bonds, and annuities for income. The Social Security fund will be depleted in the next decade. The US is building an enormous budget deficit with no plan to repay it anytime soon. Even companies with extensive dividend history are suspending dividend payments to shareholders. Even your private pension might be at risk.
Take a holistic view of your finances
I cannot emphasize enough how important it is to have a comprehensive view of your finances. if you are preparing for retirement during the coronavirus crisis you must be proactive. We do not know what the future will be after the coronavirus. Some variations of social distancing will remain for the foreseeable future. This crisis will impact every private and public organization. The best way to prepare for the future is to take full control of the presence. Having a holistic view of your finances will help you make informed financial decisions and watch out for blinds spots. Collect all essential financial pieces from 401k and rental income to life insurance and pension. Draw a full picture of your financial life. Take the stress out of your retirement and start planning now.
Stick to a budget
The coronavirus pandemic has brought the first recession since the financial crisis. The US GDP shrank by -4.5% in Q1 of 2020 and is expected to shrink even further in the second quarter. Nearly 30 million Americans have filed for unemployment. Even if your job is safe, now is an excellent opportunity to take control of your budget. Aim to save at least 10% of your income. If your retirement is imminent, you should save at least 20% of your income. With so much spending out of reach – restaurants, travel, theaters, festivals, and sports events, this is an opportunity to access your spending needs for the next few years.
Pay off debt
The coronavirus crisis proved that liquidity is king, and high levels of debt are detrimental. The extreme volatility we saw March 2020 was the result of inventors looking for cash at any price. Make sure you pay off all your debt before you retire. You must make a cautious effort to clear all your debt, including mortgages and credit cards. Even loans with lower interest can be dangerous if you do not have the income to support it. Start your retirement with a clean slate.
Review your investments
The steep market selloff in March 2020 brought troublesome memories of the financial crisis. The stock market lost 35% from its February high. The wild daily swings ended the longest bull market in US history. Just when everyone was expecting another shoe to drop, the Fed stepped in. The Federal Reserve launched not one but several nuclear bazookas and saved the economy from complete collapse. The quickest drop on record lead to the quickest recovery. The massive Fed intervention alongside positive news of bending the curve, state reopening, vaccine progress, and remdesivir drug approval pushed the stock markets higher.
At the time of this article, Nasdaq was flat for 2020. S&P 500 was down -12% and Russell 2000 down nearly -25%. Gold 10-year treasury is paying 0.64%, and the 30-year treasury is yielding 1.27%.
With all that in mind, you have a perfect opportunity to review your investment portfolio. Take a deep dive and make changes if necessary. Remember that your investments must align with your investment horizon, financial goals, and risk tolerance.
Keep your options open
Prepare for multiple scenarios. Without an effective vaccine, the coronavirus will be a threat to the economy for the foreseeable future. However, in every crisis, there is an opportunity. We will experience a full digital transformation in all business sectors and aspects of life.
Despite the call of numerous experts and overnight “authorities” for a V-shaped, U-shaped, L–shaped, and W-shaped economic recovery, I do not know what the future holds. But I know that there is a light at the end of the tunnel. I am confident that we will come out stronger from this crisis. Hopefully, we learn our lessons and become more prepared for future unforeseen threats.
Maybe this crisis affected your health. Perhaps it changed your views about your life and your family. Maybe this crisis made you reevaluate your priorities. It certainly did it for me. As you approach your retirement date, keep an open mind. Have a plan A, B, C, and even D. Build enough cash buffer and never run out of options.
Preparing for retirement during coronavirus can be stressful. Many of the safe investments and guaranteed income options may not provide you with enough income to support yourself in retirement. Low interest rates are detrimental to retirees. Commodity markets are extremely volatile. The stock market offers dividend and upside with a high risk premium. Real Estate is lucrative but illiquid.
Having a comprehensive view of your finances will help you take a pulse of your financial health. It can help you see areas of financial weakness and strength that you may not be able to see otherwise. Be proactive and keep your options open.
If you are having questions or concerns about your retirement in 2020 or beyond, feel free to contact me directly.
Early retirement for physicians….As someone married to a physician and surrounded by many friends in the medical field, I know that early retirement is on the minds of many physicians. If you are reading this article, you have probably put some serious thoughts about it as well.
Retiring early is a very personal decision. And it is not an easy decision to make. It would be best if you considered many financial and personal factors before you make the final call. Retirement will change your lifestyle dramatically. Your salary and healthcare benefits will be different. You might experience an unexpected change of pace. You may lose touch with colleagues and friends. On the bright side, you can travel and do things that matter most to you. Your stress level will decrease, and you will spend more time with your family and loved ones.
Many physicians decide to leave the profession due to physical and emotional stress. A 2019 study by the AMA, the Mayo Clinic, and Stanford University School of Medicine found that 44% of US physicians presented at least one symptom of burnout. For comparison, the overall burnout among US workers is 28%.
Among the specialties with the highest burnout rate are Urology (54%), Neurology (53%), Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (52%), Internal Medicine (49%), and Emergency Medicine (48%).
The peer pressure for early retirement
Be prepared to encounter some resistance from colleagues and patients when you announce your early retirement. There is this unspoken public “belief” that doctors owe society their skills and knowledge. Many patients don’t want to look for another doctor. And some of your colleagues may feel that you are abandoning the profession. You need to ignore the noise and focus on your personal goals.
I compiled a list of suggestions that will help you prepare for your journey to early retirement. Don’t wait until the last moment. Get ahead of the curve so that you can take the financial stress out of your retirement plans.
Study your benefits
The first step to early retirement for physicians is to know your employee benefits in full detail. Most public and private healthcare systems offer competitive benefits packages with a wide range of perks, including pension, 401k match, profit sharing, healthcare coverage, life insurance, disability insurance, and loan repayment. Many employers even offer an early retirement option at 55.
These benefit packages vary significantly from one employer to the next. Take some time to learn and understand your options. If your goal is to retire early, consider an employer that will give you the highest chance to achieve this goal.
The US student debt has skyrocketed to $1.6 trillion. Seventy-five percent of medical students graduated in their class of 2018 with student debt. The average loan per student is $196,520. Furthermore, many medical students graduate with more than $300,000 in debt. It’s not uncommon that some physician couples owe over half a million dollars in student debt.
A crucial step in your journey to early retirement for physicians is paying off ALLYOUR DEBT, including student loans, credit cards, and mortgages. It might seem like an uphill battle, but it’s not impossible.
There are several options you can consider when tackling your student loans – loan forgiveness, refinancing with low-interest rates, and income-driven repayment.
Maximize your retirement savings
When you retire early, assuming before the age of 66, you will not have full access to your social security benefits, pension, and Medicare benefits. In many cases, you may want to delay taking your pension and social security to maximize the amount you will receive annually.
One way to cover the gap while you are waiting is through your retirement savings. Most employers nowadays offer either a 401k, a 403b, or a 457-retirement plan. When you join your employer’s retirement plan, you can save up to $19,000 per year as of 2019. If you are 50 or older, you can save an additional $6,000 for a total of $25,000 per year. An additional benefit to you is that these contributions are tax-deductible and will lower your tax bill. Many employers also offer a match that can further boost your retirement savings. For more information about how to increase your 401k savings, read my article about “The Secret to becoming a 401k millionaire.“
Save outside your retirement plan
if you plan to retire early, you need to make additional savings outside of your retirement plan.
First, you need an emergency fund. It would help if you had at least six months’ worth of living expenses in cash or a savings account. This emergency fund will serve you as a buffer in case of sudden and unexpected expenses.
Second, save in a taxable investment account. The main benefit of using an investment account is liquidity. You can access these funds at any point in time without any restrictions.
If you retire in your 40s or 50s, you may not be able to access your retirement accounts before reaching 59 ½. Some legal exemptions, including poor health, disability, and economic hardship, allow withdrawing your retirement savings without a penalty. However, these exceptions may not apply to you. And ideally, you should let your tax-deferred retirement savings grow for as long as possible.
Investing outside of your retirement accounts does not provide immediate tax benefits. All investments will be after-taxes. You may also incur taxes on dividends and capital gains. To make the most out of your investment account, make sure to use low-cost, tax-efficient ETFs and index funds.
Have an exit strategy if you own a medical practice
If you own a medical practice and want to retire early, you need a good exit and succession plan. You will have to find a suitable buyer or someone who will manage the day-to-operations on your behalf. Many business owners have a significant portion of their wealth locked in their business. If selling your practice is the primary source of your retirement income, you will need to consider tax implications from any potential realized capital gains.
Consider moving to a low-cost location.
If you currently work and live in an expensive area like San Francisco or New York City, you may want to consider retiring in a different state or even another country. The cost of living differential between Mississippi or Arkansas versus New York and California could make a big difference in your retirement lifestyle, especially when working on a tight budget.
Look for healthcare coverage.
One of the main challenges when you plan for early retirement for physicians will be healthcare coverage. Depending on your employer, some doctors have excellent medical and dental benefits. In some cases, these benefits are completely free or heavily subsidized by your employer. Some hospitals that offer an early retirement option could have healthcare benefits included. In other cases, when you retire early, you could lose these perks. Since you won’t have access to Medicare until you reach 65, you need to find a reasonably priced healthcare insurance policy.
Do not underestimate healthcare costs. According to Fidelity, a 65-year old couple retiring in 2019 can expect to spend $285,000 in health care and medical expenses throughout retirement. For single retirees, the health care cost could reach $150,000 for women and $135,000 for men.
Consider working per diem
If you are short of retirement savings or bored of staying at home, you may consider working per diem or locum tenens. You can work on an hourly basis at your own pace. The extra work will boost your early retirement income and will keep your knowledge up to date.
Stick to a budget
You must adhere to a budget before and after your retirement. Before retirement, you need to pay off your debt and save for retirement aggressively. Depending on your income, these payments can cut through your family budget. You may have to make some tough choices to avoid or delay large purchases and curb discretionary spending.
Once you retire, your income may go down. True, you don’t have to drive to work, but some of your expenses might still be the same.
Here are some ideas about how to save money—Cook instead of going to a restaurant. Make your coffee. Drive your old car instead of buying a new one—travel off-season.
Have a plan
A happy retirement comes with a good plan. It may require some self-discovery but ultimately will lead to finding a purpose and fulfilling your life dreams. You can travel and volunteer. Write a book. Teach. Learn a new hobby or language. Find out what makes you happy outside of your daily routine and make the most out of your free time.
The bottom line on early retirement
Early retirement for physicians is not an illusion. It’s an achievable mission that requires a great deal of planning and some personal sacrifice. If you want to retire early, you need to start planning now. Some hospital systems offer early retirement packages. Unfortunately, your guaranteed retirement income or pension will be a lot less than what you would get if you retire ten years later.
Your family can be a big influencer for or against your decision to retire early. You might have a partner who wants to stay active. Perhaps, you have children who are going to college soon. Every family is different, and every situation is unique. Do the number crunching and see what makes the most sense to you.
How to become a 401k millionaire? Today, 401k plans are one of the most popular employee benefits. Companies use 401k plans to attract top talent. 401k plan is a powerful vehicle to save for retirement and become financially independent. According to Fidelity, there are 180,000 Fidelity 401(k) plans with a $1 million or more balance. Congratulations to you If you are one of them. There are still many helpful tips that can get you to reach your financial goals while keeping your investments safe.
You hear stories about people with a million dollars in their 401k plan. Then you look at your 401k balance, and it doesn’t look as high as you would like it to be.
The pathto becoming a 401k millionaire
I hope this article will guide you on your path to become a 401k millionaire.
Many variables can impact your 401k account – age, salary, debt, tax rate, risk tolerance, plan fees, employee match.
Becoming a 401k millionaire is not as hard as it might seem. However, you need to follow a few simple rules that can get you on the right path.
“The best time to plant a tree was 20 years ago. The second-best time is now.”
Start saving early in your 401k
Saving early in your 401k will guarantee you the highest chance to become a 401k millionaire at the lowest cost.
I did the math for how much you need to contribute if you start fresh at any age. These numbers are based on assumptions for continuous monthly 401k contributions until reaching 65 with a 7% average annual market return for a 60/40 portfolio and 2% annual inflation. Keep in mind that these assumptions are just assumptions and only for illustration purposes. Your situation could be unique and could change the math dramatically.
401k Contributions by Age if you start fresh
What drives the growth of your 401k is the power of compounding. It’s the snowball effect of accumulating earnings-generating more earnings over time. The longer you wait, the larger you will need to contribute to reaching your 1-million goal.
If you are 25-years old and just starting your career, you need to save approximately $390 per month or $4,644 annually to reach the $1-million goal by the age of 65. Your lifetime contribution between the age of 25 and 65 will be $190,000.
When you start saving in your 30s, this target number goes to $560 per month. Your lifetime contribution between the age of 30 and 65 will be $241,920.
Your saving rate goes up to 1,220 per month if you start saving actively in your 40s and increases to $5,330 at the age of 55.
Take advantage of your employer match.
If my recommended monthly contribution looks like an uphill battle, don’t forget about your employer match. Many employers offer a 401k match to attract and keep top talent. The match could be a percentage of your salary, a one-to-one match, or an absolute dollar amount. If your employer offers a 4% match, at a minimum, you should contribute 4% to your 401k plan. Take full advantage of this opportunity to get free money.
Max out your 401k
In 2020, you can make up to a $19,500 contribution to your 401k plan. If you can afford it, always try to max out your contributions.
Catch-up contributions when 50 and older
If you are 50 years or older, you can make an additional $6,500 contribution to your plan. Combined with the $19,500 limit, that is a maximum of $26,000 in 2020.
Obviously, owning $1 million is a big accomplishment. However, it may not be enough to sustain your lifestyle during retirement. As a financial advisor, I recommend that my clients replace at least 80% of their income before retirement. If you are a high earner or plan to retire early, you need to save more aggressively to reach your goals.
An important part of the formula of becoming a 401k millionaire is consistency. Saving every month and every year is a critical part of achieving your financial goals. On the contrary, large gaps could hurt your chances of reaching your financial goals.
Don’t panic during market turbulence.
The market can be volatile. Don’t let your emotions get the worst of you. Nobody has made any money panicking. During 2008-2009, many people stopped contributing to their 401k plans or moved their investments into cash. These folks never participated in the market recovery and the longest bull market in history. Stay invested. And think of this way. If the market goes down, your plan will invest your automatic monthly contributions at lower prices. You are already getting a deal.
Watch your fees
Higher fees can erode your returns and slow down the pursuit of your financial goals. I recently advised a 401k plan, where the average fund’s fees were 1.5%. In the age of ETFs and index investing, it is mind-blowing that some 401k plan still charges exuberantly high fees. If your 401k plan charges high fees, talk to your manager or HR representative, and demand lower fee options.
Be mindful of your taxes.
Taxes play a big role in 401k planning. Most 401k contributions are tax-deferred. Meaning that your contributions will reduce your current taxable income. Your investments will grow tax-free until you reach retirement age. You start paying taxes on your withdrawals. There are a couple of strategies you can implement to make your withdrawals to make more tax-efficient. You can reach out to me if you have any questions on that topic, as every situation is unique and could require a unique solution.
Currently, some employers offer a Roth 401k contribution as an additional option to their plan. Unlike the tax-deferred option, Roth 401k contributions are made on an after-tax basis. Roth 401k contributions don’t have an immediate financial impact. However, if planned well, Roth contributions could help you immensely to reach your financial goals. For example, let’s assume that you are in a low tax bracket and your employers offer both tax-deferred and Roth 401k contributions. The tax-deferred option is usually the default. But if you are in a low tax bracket, your tax benefit will be minimal. In that case, maybe it’s worth selecting the Roth 401k.
Don’t take a loan
Under no circumstances you should take a loan from your 401k plan. No matter how dire the situation is, try to find an alternative. Taking a loan from your 401k can set you back many years in achieving your financial goal of becoming a 401k millionaire. Obviously, all rules have exceptions, but before you take a loan from your 401k, talk to your financial advisor first for alternatives.
Keep a long-term view.
Life happens. Markets go up and down. You can lose your job or change employers. You need to pay off a big loan. Your car breaks down. You need money for a down payment on your first house. Something always happens. Circumstances change. Whatever happens, keep a long-term view. Your 401k plan could be the answer to your financial independence. Don’t make rash decisions.
A financial checklist for young families…..Many of my clients are young families looking for help to build their wealth and improve their finances. We typically discuss a broad range of topics from buying a house, saving for retirement, savings for their kids’ college, budgeting and building legacy. As a financial advisor in the early 40s, I have personally gone through many of these questions and was happy to share my experience.
Some of my clients already had young children. Others are expecting a new family member. Being a dad of a nine-month-old boy, I could relate to many of their concerns. My experience helped me guide them through the web of financial and investment questions.
While each family is unique, there are many common themes amongst all couples. While each topic of them deserves a separate post, I will try to summarize them for you.
Successful couples always find a way to communicate effectively. I always advise my clients to discuss their financial priorities and concerns. When partners talk to each other, they often discover that they have entirely different objectives. Having differences is normal as long as you have common goals. By building a strong partnership you will pursue your common goals while finding a common ground for your differences
Talking to each other will help you address any of the topics in this article.
If it helps, talk to an independent fiduciary financial advisor. We can help you get a more comprehensive and objective view of your finances. We often see blind spots that you haven’t recognized before.
Set your financial goals
Most life coaches will tell you that setting up specific goals is crucial in achieving success in life. It’s the same when it comes to your finances. Set specific short-term and long-term financial goals and stick to them. These milestones will guide you and help you make better financial decisions in the future.
There is nothing more important to any family wellbeing than budgeting. Many apps can help you budget your income and spending. You can also use an excel spreadsheet or an old fashion piece of paper. You can break down your expenses in various categories and groups similar to what I have below. Balance your budget and live within your means.
Utilities (Phone, Cable, Gas, Electric)
Non-Discretionary Flexible Expenses
Automotive (Fuel, Parking, Tolls)
Dues & Subscriptions
Consolidate your assets
One common issue I see amongst young couples is the dispersion of their assets. It’s very common for spouses to have multiple 401k, IRAs and savings accounts in various financial institutions and former employers. Consolidating your assets will help you get a more comprehensive view of your finances and manage them more efficiently.
Manage your debt
The US consumer debt has grown to record high levels. The relatively low-interest rates, rising real estate prices and the ever-growing college cost have pushed the total value of US household debt to $13.25 trillion. According to the New York Fed, here is how much Americans owe by age group.
Under 35: $67,400
75 and up: $34,500
For many young families who are combining their finances, managing their debt becomes a key priority in achieving financial independence.
Manage your credit score
One way to lower your debt is having a high credit score. I always advise my clients to find out how much their credit score is. The credit score, also known as the FICO score, is a measure between 300 and 850 points. Higher scores indicate lower credit risk and often help you get a lower interest rate on your mortgage or personal loan. Each of the three national credit bureaus, Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion, provides an individual FICO score. All three companies have a proprietary database, methodology, and scoring system. You can sometimes see substantial differences in your credit score issued by those agencies.
Your FICO score is a sum of 64 different measurements. And each agency calculates it slightly differently. As a rule, your credit score depends mainly on the actual dollar amount of your debt, the debt to credit ratio and your payment history. Being late on or missing your credit card payments, maximizing your credit limits and applying for too many cards at once will hurt your credit score.
Own a house or rent
Owning your first home is a common theme among my clients. However, the price of real estate in the Bay area, where I live, has skyrocketed in the past 10 years. The average home price in San Francisco according to Zillow is $1.3 million. The average home price in Palo Alto is $3.1 million. (Source: https://www.zillow.com/san-francisco-ca/home-values/ ). While not at this magnitude, home prices have risen in all major metropolitan areas around the country. Buying a home has become an impossible dream for many young families. Not surprisingly a recent survey by the Bank of the West has revealed that 46% of millennials have chosen to rent over buying a home, while another 11% are staying with their parents.
Buying a home in today’s market conditions is a big commitment and a highly personal decision. It depends on a range of factors including how long you are planning to live in the new home, available cash for a downpayment, job prospects, willingness to maintain your property, size of your family and so on.
Maximize your retirement contributions
Did you know that in 2019 you can contribute up to $19,000 in your 401k? If you are in your 50s or older, you can add another $6,000 as a catch-up contribution. Maximizing your retirement savings will help you grow your wealth and build a cushion of solid retirement savings. Not to mention the fact that 401k contributions are tax-deferred and lower your current tax bill.
Unfortunately, many Americans are not saving aggressively for retirement. According to Fidelity, the average person in their 30’s have $42.7k in their 401k plan. people in their 40s own on average 103k.
If your 401k balance is higher than your age group you are already better off than the average American.
Here is how much Americans own in their 401 plan by age group
20 to 29 age: $11,500
30 to 39 age: $42,700
40 to 49 age: $103,500
50 to 59 age: $174,200
60 to 69 age: $192,800
For those serious about their retirement goals, Fidelity recommends having ten times your final salary in savings if you want to retire by age 67. They are also suggesting how to achieve this goal by age group.
By the age of 30: Have the equivalent of your starting salary saved
35 years old: Have two times your salary saved
40 years old: Have three times your salary saved
45 years old: Have four times your salary saved
50 years old: Have six times your salary saved
55 years old: Have seven times your salary saved
60 years old: Have eight times your salary saved
By age 67: Have 10 times your salary saved
Keep in mind that these are general guidelines. Everybody is different. Your family retirement goal is highly dependent on your individual circumstances, your lifestyle, spending habits, family size and alternative sources of income.
Know your risk tolerance level
One common issue I see with young families is the substantial gap between their risk tolerance and the actual risk they take in their retirement and investment accounts. Risk tolerance is your emotional ability to accept risk as an investor.
I have seen clients who are conservative by nature but have a very aggressive portfolio. Or the opposite, there are aggressive investors with a large amount of cash or a large bond portfolio. Talking to a fiduciary financial advisor can help you understand your risk tolerance. You will be able to narrow that gap between your emotions and real-life needs and then connect them to your financial goals and milestones.
Diversify your investments
Diversification is the only free lunch you will get in investing. Diversifying your investments can reduce the overall risk of your portfolio. Without going into detail, owning a mix of uncorrelated assets will lower the long-term risk of your portfolio. I always recommend that you have a portion of your portfolio in US Large Cap Blue Chip Stocks and add some exposure to Small Cap, International, and Emerging Market Stocks, Bonds and Alternative Assets such as Gold and Real Estate.
Invest your idle cash
One common issue I have seen amongst some of my clients is holding a significant amount of cash in their investment and retirement accounts. The way I explain it is that most millennials are conservative investors. Many of them observed their parents’ negative experience during the financial crisis of 2008 and 2009. As a result, they became more risk-averse than their parents.
However, keeping ample cash in your retirement account in your 30s will not boost your wealth in the long run. You are probably losing money as inflation is deteriorating the purchasing power of your idle cash. Even if you are a very conservative investor, there are ways to invest in your retirement portfolio without taking on too much risk.
I talk about early retirement a lot often than one might imagine. The media and online bloggers have boosted the image of retiring early and made it sound a lot easier than it is. I am not saying that early retirement is an illusion, but it requires a great deal of personal and financial sacrifice. Unless you are born rich or rely on a huge payout, most people who retire early are very frugal and highly resourceful. If your goal is to retire early, you need to pay off your debt now, cut down spending and save, save and save.
Build-in tax diversification
While most of the time we talk about our 401k plans, there are other investment and retirement vehicles out there such as Roth IRA, Traditional IRA and even your brokerage account. They all have their own tax advantages and disadvantages. Even if you save a million bucks in your 401k plan, not all of it is yours. You must pay a cut to the IRS and your state treasury. Not to mention the fact that you can only withdraw your savings penalty-free after reaching 59 ½. Roth IRA and brokerage account do not lower your taxes when you make contributions, but they offer a lot more flexibility, liquidity, and some significant future tax advantages. In the case of Roth IRA, all your withdrawals can be tax-free when you retire. Your brokerage account provides you with immediate liquidity and lower long-term capital gains tax on realized gains.
Plan for child’s expenses
Most parents will do anything for their children. But having kids is expensive. Whether a parent will stay at home and not earn a salary, or you decide to hire a nanny or pay for daycare, children will add an extra burden to your budget. Not to mention the extra money for clothes, food, entertainment (Disneyland) and even another seat on the plane.
Plan for college with a 529 Plan
Many parents want to help their children pay for college or at least cover some of the expenses. 529 plan is a convenient, relatively inexpensive and tax-advantageous way to save for qualified college expenses. Sadly, only 29% of US families are familiar with the plan. Most states have their own state-run 529 plan. Some states even allow state tax deductions for 529 contributions. Most 529 plans have various active, passive and age-based investment options. You can link your checking account to your 529 plan and set-up regular monthly contributions. There are plentiful resources about 529 plans in your state. I am happy to answer questions if you contact me directly.
Protect your legacy
Many young families want to protect their children in case of sudden death or a medical emergency. However, many others don’t want to talk about it at all. I agree it’s not a pleasant conversation. Here in California, unless you have an established estate, in case of your death all your assets will go to probate and will have to be distributed by the court. The probate is a public, lengthy and expensive process. When my son was born my wife and I set up an estate, created our wills and assigned guardians, and trustees to our newly established trust.
The process of protecting your legacy is called estate planning. Like everything else, it’s highly personalized depending on the size of your family, the variety of assets you own, your income sources, your charitable aptitude, and so on. Talking to an experienced estate attorney can help you find the best decision for yourself and your family.
I never sell insurance to my clients. However, if you are in a situation where you are the sole bread earner in the household, it makes a lot of sense to consider term life and disability insurance, which can cover your loved ones if something were to happen to you.
I realize that this is a very general, kind of catch-all checkpoint but let me give it a try. No matter what happens in your life right now, I guarantee you a year or two from now things will be different. Life changes all the time – you get a new job, you have a baby, you need to buy a new car, or your company goes public, and your stock options make you a millionaire. Whatever that is, think ahead. Proper planning could save you a lot of money and frustration in the long run.
I realize that this checklist is not complete. Every family is unique. Each one of you has very different circumstances, financial priorities, and life goals. There is never a one-size-fits-all solution for any family out there. If you contact me directly, I will be happy to address your questions.